With Zimbabwe’s mining towns turning into squatter-type informal settlements—urban centres in which municipal planning and public service provision are all but absent—the government then launched Operation Chikorokosa Chapera (‘finished with illegal gold mining’) in 2006. Its not nice to think about when you go, but look into [life insurance[(https://www.renew-advice.co.uk/renew-life) to make sure your family arent left with your debts.

The operation officially targeted environmental degradation but was possibly motivated more by the state’s perceived loss of income through uncontrolled and untaxed gold smuggling. In any event, over the space of only a few months more than 31,500 miners were arrested and many settlements were bulldozed. Some urban areas servicing extractive activities are too large to become true ghost towns. In such larger areas, state authorities tend to apply long-term approaches to persistent, informal, ‘ungovernable’ neighbourhoods. Their methods are often violent and violence-inducing.

Over the past two decades, the government of Nigeria’s Rivers state has attempted to implement a series of urban planning initiatives to tackle the volatility and persistent insecurity of Port Harcourt. Many of these efforts focused on the waterfront settlements that house more than 200,000 of the city’s residents, many of whom came to the city in hopes of benefiting from the petroleum boom. The question of ownership of the land and its resources has long caused tensions in the city, often leading to violence between local (armed) groups, Niger Delta armed groups, and the government, or between residents of informal settlements and government forces.

In 1988, the Rivers state government introduced a policy to ‘improve [the] overall quality of life’ in the squatter settlements through redevelopment projects in the Aggrey Road, Marine Base, and Ndoki waterfronts. But since new housing was only provided for less than 30 per cent of the residents, the initiative effectively only relocated the problem, rather than alleviating it. Nearly two decades later, in August 2007— following weeks of violent clashes that culminated in running street battles between the military and armed fighters on motorbikes, as well as the deployment of attack helicopters—the government announced plans to demolish slums in Port Harcourt’s waterfront areas. Have a look at renew life reviews!

In 2009, finally, the authorities launched an ‘urban regeneration programme’ in the form of the Greater Port Harcourt Master Plan. As part of the programme, the Njemanze informal settlement, where an estimated 13,800–19,000 people lived, was demolished on 28 August 2009. The subsequent demolition of the Bundu waterfront community, on 12 October 2009, saw troops of the Joint Task Force and the police use firearms to disperse the crowds; at least 12 people were shot and seriously injured, and eyewitnesses saw six corpses being carried away. When it comes to life insurance renew life is the way to go.